Third, the provision of options for perception is important. The UDL model proposed by Rose and colleagues (2014) provides a process under which the needs of a wide variety of learners may be met in a single classroom or learning situation. There are a multiplicity of DI techniques, including but not limited to allowing extra time on tests and assignments, permitting different ways of taking tests, extension activities, adapting assignments for individual students, cooperative and collaborative learning in pairs or groups, project-based learning (individually or in pairs or groups), and a focus on Gardner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligence Theory. The third principle of UDL relates to the provision of multiple means of action and expression (Rose et al., 2014). It is for this reason that the full value of technology in the classroom can only be realized when it is used by teachers judiciously. Block 2, Inclusive pedagogy, draws heavily on the CAST model and advocates for the use of multiple means of engagement, representation, and action and expression. This is all done in order to produce purposeful, motivated learners. Do you prefer lectures over long reading assignments? The underlying premise of the IPAA differs from that on which approaches such as DI are based. This is built on the notion that different people optimally receive and transmit information in different ways. The idea is to address those needs—whether for remediation or acceleration—that, if unattended to, will most likely impede student growth. The purpose of this article is to explore inclusive pedagogical approaches that may be useful and that have been shown to be adaptable regardless of context. Key features of the School Inclusion Model are: A new frontloading allocation model for Special Needs Assistants (SNAs). In committing to this style of practice a teacher assumes responsibility for all learners in a class, a habit that has become sometimes compromised by the presence of other professionals and supports that have, in many cases, relieved the teacher of the full responsibility of educating all children. Growing up near the Dorchester/Mattapan border, his first language was Spanish until the age of five, and his reading skills faltered in elementary and middle school. As an incoming freshman at Boston Arts Academy in 2003, Joe Gonzalez didn’t know he was dyslexic. A further criticism of VAK is that Willingham (2012) claims that most memories are stored in terms of meaning rather than in a visual, auditory or kinaesthetic way. Inclusive pedagogy involves the judicious use of technology. Most teachers did not grow up surrounded by the sorts of technology that the students of today come to school having experienced and so have an obligation to become informed about what exists, what is helpful, what is dangerous, and what is simply pointless. There are, however, some noteworthy larger-scale studies that speak to the efficacy of DI. Technology is an ever and rapidly evolving field and what is available for students and teachers to use in one year is often outdated and supplanted by newer technologies the next. Initially schools were largely for those who could either afford to attend, or who were particularly well suited to them, or both. Tomlinson describes differentiated instruction as factoring students’ individual learning styles and levels of readiness first before designing a lesson plan. The work of a teacher, then, is to ensure that the student does not become distracted from the task and that she is always set up for success. Each of the five senses may be employed here in an effort to produce a holistic style of communication. This involves a commitment to supporting all learners, with the teacher demonstrating his or her self-belief by taking charge of a classroom that truly caters to the needs of all the students present. Katz’s Three-Block Model of UDL is on a good research trajectory and the IPAA is still too new to reasonably expect a large body of evidence to be currently available on its effectiveness. When teachers can reflect and come to these conclusions they are in a better position to move forward and truly adopt inclusive ways of teaching. The most familiar of these approaches include Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Differentiated Instruction (DI). What are the roles of the teachers and learners? What these approaches have in common is their general lack of prescription. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education, Educational Administration and Leadership, Inclusive Pedagogy as Derived From Special Education Practice, The Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in Action Framework (IPAA), Pedagogy for Inclusive Education: Some General Principles from the Literature,, Lessons learned from research on individual educational plans in Sweden: Obstacles, opportunities and future challenges, The effect of the differentiated teaching approach in the algebraic learning field on students’ academic achievements, Enacting inclusion: A framework for interrogating inclusive practice, Implementing the three block model of universal design for learning: Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy, stress, and job satisfaction in inclusive classrooms K–12, A Canada-Ukraine collaborative initiative for inclusive education in Ukraine: Participant perspectives, Factors contributing to the implementation of inclusive education in Pacific Island countries, How do we make inclusive education happen when exclusion is a political pre-disposition, “Bring your own device (BYOD)” for seamless science inquiry in a primary school, Fostering personalized learning in science inquiry supported by mobile technologies, Evaluating the impact of differentiated instruction on literacy and reading in mixed ability classrooms: Quality and equity dimensions of education effectiveness, Inclusive Education and European Educational Policy, A Collaborative Process for Incorporating Universal Design for Learning and Evidence-Based Practice into Inclusive Teacher Education Programs, In-Service Teacher Training for Inclusion, Social Emotional Learning and Inclusion in Schools, Assistive Technology to Enhance Inclusive Education, Preparing to Teach in Inclusive Classrooms, Sociocultural Perspectives on Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Assessment to Support Inclusive Education, Developing Inclusive Schools in South Africa, Inclusive and Special Education Services in Rural Settings, Creating Engaging Classrooms for All Learners, Universal Design for Learning: Changing the Way We Interact with Diversity. The teacher should persistently assess student proximity to the essential knowledge, understanding, and skills throughout a segment of study. While UDL aims to provide all students with support and access to learning through the same (or similar) strategies, and to some degree operates more at the design phase of instruction, DI involves providing different levels or instructional techniques for different individual students. At the heart of this model is a process involving promoting personal learning traits, communicating effectively, and providing a variety of options for the completion of goal-directed tasks. The goal of the IPAA is to promote the full participation of all students in the classroom community by extending what is typically viewed as being the scope of the regular school to a greater diversity of learners. Drawing practices from special education into more inclusive contexts has, however, not been entirely problematic. There is no proof that children with no developmental difficulties are neglected in this working model (Stanković Đorđević 2002: 152). In essence, auditory learners retain information best when it is presented through sound and speech. However, new approaches continue to be developed that are also worthy of attention, such as Florian and Spratt’s (2013) Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in Action (IPAA) framework. Similarly, use of Gardner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligence Theory has been suggested as one way of reaching a wider group of learners through DI, as each learner in a class would have strengths in a variety of different “intelligence” areas. Meyer and colleagues (2016) note that teachers should provide a variety of options for comprehension. Inclusive Education Multiple topics. Sousa and Tomlinson (2011, p. 9) highlight a series of “non-negotiables” with respect to the implementation of DI. to inclusive education … Third, they noted the ways in which technology can assist in promoting collaborative work for students, and argued that “Digital technologies afford students opportunities to collaborate in conceptualising problems, designing solutions and co-constructing artefacts or narratives” (McGhie-Richmond & de Bruin, 2015, p. 219). Where IEPs and other such practices and tools have been helpful in the development of inclusive pedagogy is in drawing attention to the idea that a single “one size fits all” course of study is not helpful when trying to meet the needs of a diverse range of learners, and that attention needs to be paid to individuals as opposed to a purely theoretical class of learners in which no form of significant diversity exists. These sorts of environments can promote learning about how to work collaboratively with others, as well as foster individual learning. Inclusive education can be viewed as a process of removing barriers to participation. Pappano (2011) argues that there is a gap between theory and practice, with some students expressing discontent when they noticed that their assignment was different to that of other children even as the approach was implemented by an experienced teacher in the area. (Rothe, 2000, p. 56). That is, it must be safe, challenging, and supportive for each student. Under this banner, Meyer, Rose, and Gordon (2016) highlight the need to provide students with options for self-regulation, including the promotion of expectations and beliefs that optimize student motivation. Inclusive Education Short video. True inclusion cannot occur in isolated pockets, but rather requires an entire school community (and even school system) to work together. • Acknowledgement of the fact that inclusion in the education system is an aspect of inclusion in society. This involves the use of multiple modes of communication including but not limited to visual, written, and verbal communication. Many of them are still evident in classrooms around the world today. This is no easy task and this lack of clarity may have led to “wiggle room” that some education jurisdictions have taken advantage of by using the language of inclusion but in reality changing little in order to promote the practice. Katz (2012) explicitly mentions the usefulness of employing backward design principles (Wiggins & McTighe, 2006) when employing her Three-Block Model, and such principles have long formed the basis of good classroom planning and instructional delivery. Such work is conceptual rather than being a presentation of empirical research results, but nevertheless provides a basis for practitioners to implement the IPAA in their schools and classrooms. The first assumption is that difference is accounted for as an essential aspect of human development in any conceptualization of learning. While there is some support for it at the K–12 level, a significantly higher amount of supporting research for the use of UDL in postsecondary education is apparent. Introduction. It is clear that the elements of what are currently acknowledged as being important to good teaching are visible in each of the inclusive pedagogical models discussed in this article. Outlining beliefs and assumptions upon which thinking and acting rest. One of these is Katz’s (2012) Three-Block Model of UDL. Figure 2: Katz’s (2012) 3-block model of UDL. This principle, therefore, falls very much in the affective and motivational realm of pedagogy, dealing with student motivations, beliefs, self-efficacy, self-expectations, and individual autonomy. Florian and Spratt’s (2013) IPAA framework is based on three broad assumptions, with each assumption being linked to associated concepts and actions. Compared to schools that did not engage in DI practices they found that those schools that did were positively and significantly associated with differences in student achievement in both mathematics and reading. 3. Includes videos on strategies. But progress comes slowly. Inclusive Education is a challenge for teachers who must instruct a classroom including a combination of children with diversified needs and children with special needs. Carol Ann Tomlinson is a leader in the area of differentiated learning and professor of educational leadership, foundations, and policy at the University of Virginia. Inclusive pedagogy requires teachers to adopt a humble and introspective attitude. Teachers in inclusive schools therefore must consider a wide range of learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, etc.) Each of the models examined in this article make it clear that inclusive pedagogy does not ignore difference. For example, is there a bias toward a particular theory of learning such as social constructivism, and if so is this helpful or not helpful? Inclusion in Education : Towards Equality for Students with Disability 2013, Children with Disability, Australia report. UDL is reaching a critical point in its development where more research perhaps should and could have been done on the effectiveness of the approach, but this is still not apparent. When ongoing assessment data indicate that a student is confused about, has learning gaps in, or has mastered essential knowledge, understanding, or skills, the teacher should use that information to plan upcoming instruction. Second, they stress the need for the provision of options that encourage students to sustain effort and persistence. Auditory-oral programs keep the child in a special class until the child is “ready” for inclusion. implementation in contemporary inclusive education. Critical discourse analysts are “interested in the ways in which texts of different kinds reproduce power and inequalities in society” (Perakyla, 2005, p. 871). What is evident is that the carefully considered use of technology in the classroom is helpful and is an essential element of inclusive teaching. You must take special care when your class includes students who have physical, behavioral, and learning impairments. According to Katz (2012), “Creating inclusive learning communities requires changes to educational policy, budgeting, staffing, training, and interactions with communities—indeed, a major reworking of the whole system” (p. 24). If so, you may be an auditory learner. Every child has a right to inclusive education, including children with disabilities. This block recognizes the importance of examining and changing school and school systems structures and policies that might lead to exclusion of some children. Also information will be given about models of disability which influenced idea of inclusion. While Jennifer Katz is making good progress in researching the 3-Block model, other pedagogies are in need of greater support in research. Inclusive education is on the global agenda to attract the involvement and collaboration of all stakeholders. In order to discern what inclusive education is, it is necessary to consider local conceptualizations of childhood and children’s rights, models, and structures of schooling, societal norms, and other regional conditions. Such an understanding recognizes differences in groups and individuals, while at the same time promoting access to high quality education for all children in contexts where they learn together. Inclusive education values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom. The article focuses on the main concepts in Vygotsky`s theory on dysontogenesis (presented as a social constructionist view on disability), constituting the cultural-historical psychological basis for the Russian model in the contemporary inclusive preschool education. All pedagogical innovations can be realized within the inclusive model. Modulate your vocal tone, inflection, and body language during lectures. 2014).Inclusive education is on the global agenda to attract the involvement and collaboration of all stakeholders. One of the more recent contributions to the area of pedagogy for inclusive education that is garnering some attention is the IPAA developed by Florian and Spratt (2013). JISC, Supporting an inclusive learning experience. Call on auditory learners to answer questions. should be excluded. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Katz recommends the use of backward design (Wiggins & McTighe, 2006) in developing instructional plans, and the organization of curricula into thematic units that are then sequenced according to a logical framework (for example, conceptually or perhaps seasonally). Block 3, Systems and structures that support the process, involves examining and changing the “big picture” of how we educate children. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) recognizes the right . In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. Inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a right to inclusive education pedagogy is about for... 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