South Africa History In the 19th Century IMPACT OF BRITISH RULE. It was only in the 19th century, when this slave trade lost its credibility and appeal that Africa’s economic system began to change. …Boers from Cape Colony in South Africa between 1835 and the early 1840s, in rebellion against the policies of the British government and in search of fresh pasturelands. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time. In December 1895, Sir Francis Scott left Cape Coast with an expedition force. The Europeans who were already in Africa had developed immunity to these diseases due to past experiences of these outbreaks in Europe. The boom in exploration was triggered to a great extent by the creation of the African Association by wealthy Englishmen in 1788, and as they travelled, they started to record details of markets, goods, and resources for the wealthy philanthropists who financed their trips. Image source. He formed an unfavourable opinion of the Asante, and began the long process of attempting to bring them under British control. The 10 percent of Africa that was under formal European control in 1870 increased to almost 90 percent by 1914, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and Liberiaremaining independent. Lastly, the principle of “divide and rule” meant that policies that intentionally weakened indigenous power networks and institutions were implemented. On April 25 the telegraph wires were cut, and Kumasi was surrounded. Since this came after more than three centuries of relatively cooperative trading activity between Europeans and Africans, it represents a significant departure in world history. Mali also possessed great wealth. Fourthly, the religious beliefs of Africans were adapted or changed. Thirty British were dying per day in June. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. During the Napoleonic Wars, the administration of Cape Colony changed. They did not receive any political rights in the Gold Coast and power was taken away from legitimate Ashanti leaders. The notion of communalism was accepted and practiced widely; land was held commonly and could not be bought or sold, although other things, such as cattle, were owned individually. The people were disarmed, and only licensed hunters could carry guns. The impact that colonisation had on Africa can be described as both good and bad. Trade would be well instantiated; the work of the Suez Canal Company at the north-eastern tip of Africa had been completed in 1869. Iron tools enhanced weaponry, allowed groups to manage and clear dense and thick forests, plough fields for farming, and making everyday life more convenient. Some nations were worse than others, but the two common themes that tied African imperialism together were racism and exploitation. Thus Africans were at a military disadvantage. The Ashanti and their early contact with European traders and explorers. Before colonisation, Africa was characterised by widespread flexibility in terms of movement, governance, and daily lifestyles. The conference lasted until February 26, 1885 – a three month period where colonial powers haggled over geometric boundaries in the interior of the continent, disregarding the cultural and linguistic boundaries already established by the Native Indigenous African population. Results of colonisation of the Ashanti kingdom and Britain. The Boer War (1899-1902), pitted Britain against Boer colonists for the possession of the interior of South Africa. Grade 8 - Term 3: The Scramble for Africa: late 19th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, Africa was still a continent almost unknown to Europeans. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing for power within European power politics. European troops entering Kumane during the second Anglo- Ashanti War. This gun could fire eleven bullets per second, and outdid the weapons that the African forces had. In the late 19th century, between roughly 1875 and 1900, a handful of European nations conquered most of Africa. In 1324-5, when Mansa Musa, its emperor, made a pilgrimage to Mecca, he took so much gold with him that in Egypt, which he also visited, the value of the metal was debased. As early as in the 19th century European powers like France, Germany, and Britain likewise sent number of missionaries, explorers, traders and philanthropists in West Africa. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). These products became of greater significance due to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. These groups were sent in Africa to investigate the needed knowledge about Africans, their history and culture, mostly knowledge about raw materials, visibility, potential areas and the nature of African population British traders had operated off what was to become known as the “Gold Coast” with little direct intervention by British authorities. In 1850, a Governor was appointed to Gold Coast who was not also Governor of Sierra Leone, and this is how the colony of Gold Coast was born. The later addition of British Togoland creates borders for the colony that are essentially those that exist for modern Ghana. The nineteenth century was a period of profound and even revolutionary changes in the political geography of Africa, characterized by the demise of old African kingdoms and empires and their reconfiguration into different political entities. In other places, the migration was from rural areas to urban areas. The French directed their attention to the active economies of the Niger Delta, the Lagos Hinterland and the Gold Coast. West Africans developed an extensive self-contained trading system, based on skilled manufacture. After the Frnech... DIAMONDS AND GOLD. People were forced off their land onto farms or factories which ultimately made the British richer. African armies did not manage to get hold of European weapons because it was not sold to them. The Europeans could not comprehend the existence of the Muslim Swahili trade which made them want to implement the Three C’s: Christianity, Commerce, and Civilisation. With this invasion, many European countries saw Africa as being available to their disposal. Hence, missionaries called on European governments for protection and intervention. Second, for centuries, European explorers have travelled throughout the African continent in their attempts to discover new things and to chart the African continent. In the end, Asantewaa and other Ashanti leaders were also sent to Seychelles to join Prempeh I. In addition to this plague, the cattle plague broke outduring the 1890’s which killed cattle, sheep and goats. The colonisation of Africa through Europe brought about many forms of government that are still visible today. Before colonisation, however, there were many forms of government in Africa, ranging from powerful empires to decentralised groups of pastoralists and hunters. The first Anglo-Ashanti War began in 1823 after the Ashanti defeated a small British force under Sir Charles McCarthy and converted his skull into a drinking cup. British and French colonial officials actively discouraged Christian mission work in Muslim areas. In retaliation, the British (with the help of tribes oppressed by the Asante, including the Fante and the Ga) beat the Asante back in 1826, and successfully ended their dominance of coastal regions. Powerful terracotta figures in traditional style continue to be made in Africa in the 19th and 20th century, contemporary with the superb carved wooden figures which survive from those two centuries. Explores assisted the European merchant groups; penetration of west Africa interior in 18th century was real a hard and difficult but with the aid of explorers, European merchant groups had advantage of trading in West Africa freely with assurance of security of themselves and their trading commodities. In the 19th century, Africa became a patchwork of European colonies. After two generations of relative peace, more violence occurred in 1863 when the Ashanti invaded the British "protectorate" along the coast in retaliation for the refusal of Fanti leaders to return a fugitive slave. Gradually, communities began to convert to Islam. At the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers scrambled to gain control over the Interior of the Continent. Colonial states were authoritarian, bureaucratic systems, partly due to their origins in military conquest and the racist ideology of the imperialist enterprise. Social and cultural beliefs and practices were challenged by these migrations. In 1895, a serious drought reached many regions in Africa which was caused by a sudden decline in rainfall. For most of the 19th century these pressures had been predominantly British, but in the 1870s French companies began to offer effective competition to the British traders not only in Upper Guinea, where they had always been strong, but also on the Ivory Coast, in the ports immediately to the west of Lagos, and even in the lower river and delta of the Niger. West Africans developed an extensive self-contained trading system, based on skilled manufacture. Africa’s colonisation was also as a result of European rivalries, where Britain and France had beenin a dispute since the Hundred Year’s War. The Great Trek is regarded by Afrikaners as a central event of their 19th-century history and the origin of their nationhood. In 1896, the British government formally annexed the territories of the Ashanti and the Fanti. Due to their large successes, missionaries began to look beyond Europe. The new rulers introduced a cash economy which required African people to become literate and so created a great demand for schools. As a result, women and adolescents were forced to take on new roles and to cope in absence of their husbands and fathers. Filed Under: African – History Effects Of Climatic And Environmental Changes On Ancient African Civilisations Firstly, colonial governments did not allow popular participation, and all political decisions were made by the small political elite with no or little input from the African population. This meant that colonial governments were not able to provide basic infrastructure, such as roads and communication networks, nor were they able to provide basic social services such as education, health care, and housing. In March 1901 Governor Matthew Nathan visited Kumasi, and he deported 16 Ashanti leaders and imprisoned 31 at Elmina. This war was covered by a number of news correspondents (including H. M. Stanley) and the "victory" excited the imagination of the European public. The League of Nations makes South West Africa (Namibia) a mandated British territory, to be administered by South Africa Go to Namibia in A Dictionary of … The focus of this lesson will be on the causes and results of European colonisation of the African continent, with special focus on the Ashanti kingdom (colonised by the British as the Gold Coast, and today the independent African country of Ghana). The result was another stand-off, but the British took casualties and public opinion at home started to view the Gold Coast as a quagmire. In reality, European colonization devastated traditional African societies and economies. The continuation of slavery within Africa in the 19th century after abolition is also poorly documented. The British held large sections of West Africa, the Nile Valley, and much of East and southern Africa. The coast of West Africa before the arrival of Europeans. Prior to the European voyages of exploration in the fifteenth century, African rulers and merchants had established trade links with the Mediterranean world, western Asia, and the Indian Ocean region. The British were victorious and reoccupied Kumasi permanently. Lastly, the public education system of African was also changed. The discovery of diamonds in 1867 near the Vaal River, some 550 miles northeast of Cape Town, ended... CECIL RHODES. For this to work a functioning and legitimate governing system was needed to ensure the civil rights of the people. Introduction. At the same time, West African trade slowly expanded towards Egypt and possibly India. However, disputes over jurisdiction of the area known as Ashanti led to war between the British and the Asante, and in 1824, the Asante succeeded in killing the Governor as well as seven of his men. The Scramble for Africa took place during the New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914. In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German Chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. These kings and chiefs were competing with each other to be the richest and most powerful within their tribes. They built railroads and roads, but only to their own benefit in order for products to be shipped off to Europe. Due to colonialism, the African family structure had been severely changed. A small percentage of the African population regarded themselves as Christians, and today more than half of the African population is Christians. On September 26, 1901 the British created the Crown Colony of Gold Coast. The Spanish ruled small parts of Morocco and coastal areas along the Atlantic Ocean. Europe saw the colonization of Africa as an opportunity to acquire a surplus population, thus settler colonies were created. These changes often challenged existing values, beliefs, and social practices. A number of pre-colonial African societies had towns and small cities. On June 23 three officers and 150 made a sortie and managed to escape. With this creation came the formation of modern civilizations, common languages, belief and value systems, art, religion, lifestyle and culture. With the beginning of colonisation in Africa, morality became an increasing issue. The majority of European Explorers spent their time to investigate and to detail the interior and coast of West Africa to help European powers that were searching areas with potential materials as European countries were experiencing mushrooming of industries. The first meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884 Image source. Why European Countries were able to colonise Africa so quickly. Media in category "Africa in the 19th century" The following 37 files are in this category, out of 37 total. Missionaries felt that education and schools were essential to their mission. European colonisation and domination changed the world dramatically. The prominence of Africans from inland areas of the continent pictured in Foà’s photographs reveals this legacy. An outbreak of new diseases made an appearance during the late 1890’sand the first one was a range of smallpox epidemics. While Islam was widespread in Africa prior to the coming of colonialism, it also benefited from colonialism. Beginning with early history and ending with current events, the book covers religion and slavery in the 19th century, continuity and change in women’s work and family life, the impact of colonialism and women’s resistance, and politics after independence. Robert Baden-Powell led the British in this campaign. Of the four powers in North Africa at the beginning of the 19th century, only Tunis and Morocco survived as independent states into the second half of the century to encounter the heavy pressures that Europe then brought to bear on the region for free trade and legal reform, measures originally leveled against the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. These social problems developed partly because not all people could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries. The coast of West Africa before the arrival of Europeans, The city of Elmina, located in the Gold Coast West Africa, in the late 19th century. Due to worldwide insufficiency of world knowledge, the size and abilities of Africa as a continent was majorly undermined and oversimplified. A map of Africa depicting the natural resoures that the continent has. From March 28 to late-September 1900, the Asante and British were engaged in what would become known as the War of the Golden Stool. Because the iron tools allowed Africans to flourish in their natural environment, they could live in larger communities which led to the formation of kingdoms and states. Missionaries began to focus on the large working class with the goal of bringing spiritual salvation to the workers and their families. Image source. Britain had had some success in halting the slave trade around the shores of Africa. The European countries were able to colonise African countries rapidly because there were rivalries between African leaders. European powers could easily take control of any source of land by using force and violence. The British fought against the Ashanti four times in the 19th century and suppressed a final uprising in 1900 before claiming the region as a colony. Historians argue that the rushed imperial conquest of the African continent by the European powers started with King Leopold II of Belgium when he involved European powers to gain recognition in Belgium. During this time of colonisation, an economic depression was occurring in Europe, and powerful countries such as Germany, France, and Great Britain, were losing money. Due tothe lack of revenue within the colonies, little attention was given to promoting social change or development. During these rivalries, European leaders would take advantage of the situation and persuaded some leaders to be on their side to fight against other leaders. It ended with a standoff after the British beat an Ashanti army near the coast in 1826. European colonisation of Africa in the late 19th century. This recognised the power of British officials and British common law in the Gold Coast and over the Fante people. Strategically, the British used the war to insure their control over the gold fields before the French, who were advancing on all sides, could claim them. Another reason for European interest in Africa is the industrialization when major social problems grew in Europe: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, social displacement from rural areas, etc. For … Thirdly, seeing as most colonial governments were not rich, they did not fund the governing of their colonies fully. Thirdly, urbanization emerged as colonization was imposed. Shortly thereafter, Governor William Maxwell arrived in Kumasi as well. On March 28, 1900 Governor Frederick Hodgson met with the chiefs at Kumasi and demanded that the Asante hand over the sacred Golden Stool to him. The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, Conquest of Africa, or the Rape of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during a short period known to historians as the New Imperialism (between 1881 and 1914). First, Europe experienced a Christian revival in the 19th century. Although colonies like Liberia and Sierra Leone were founded by American and British abolitionists as homelands for freed slaves, colonies were mainly set up to exploit the natural resources of the African continent. These interactions were to have a profound effect on African coastal settlements and African institutions came under considerable European influence very early on. The reasons for African colonisation were mainly economic, political and religious. Firstly, colonial and political practices caused a large scale movement of people. Christianity - Christianity - 19th-century efforts: A worldwide movement of evangelical fervour and renewal, noted for its emphasis on personal conversion and missionary expansion, stirred new impulses for Christian unity in the 19th century. Great Britain was the leaders at this time in … The expansion of the Asante kingdom towards the coast was the major cause of this, as the British began to fear that the Asante would come to monopolise coastal trade in their place. The British then spent money on things that will improve their ability to remove wealth and natural resources from the Gold Coast. From the 8th century Muslim traders, from North Africa and Arab countries, began to reach the region. However, even in these societies, most people were engaged in agriculture in rural villages or homesteads. It was ruled by an ethnic group called the Akan, which in turn was composed of up to 38 subgroups, such as the Bekiai, Adansi, Juabin, Kokofu, Kumasi, Mampon, Nsuta, Nkuwanta, Dadussi, Daniassi, Ofinsu, and Adjitai. The Ashanti kingdom, or Asante, dominated much of the present-day state of Ghana. The colonisation of Africa was part of a global European process reaching all the continents of the world. The Ashanti had long viewed the Dutch as allies, so they invaded the British protectorate along the coast. In 1894, the Third Anglo-Ashanti War began following British press reports that a new Ashantehene named Prempeh committed acts of cruelty and barbarism. Missionary work in central and southern Africa began in the early 19th century, before Europeans had colonized those regions. European motives included the desire to control valuable … The 19th century brings increasing European involvement in north Africa, where economic interests cause France to annexe Algeria and Tunisia. Africa seemed to be out of harm’s way and had an abundance of raw materials from which Europe could make money from. The combination of these three elements, Livingstone believed, would end human suffering in Africa, and the ultimate level of civilisation would be achieved within the continent. Africa. Patterns of colonisation: which countries colonised which parts of Africa. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century, European countries began their scramble for Africa which caused African to suffer from violence like wars, slavery and unfairness, but there was also a positive, peaceful and diplomatic consequences and events in Africa like fair trade system, new technology and the security given to Africans under European rule. Missionaries did not serve as direct agents of European imperialism, yet they drew European governments deeper into Africa. They accomplished this by using more powerful weapons, and had the advantage of the newly invented machine gun called the Maxim gun which was invented in the 1880’s. The Ashanti kingdom had emerged from the mid- 17th century, benefitting from access both to rich agricultural resources and gold, much of the labour for production of which was provided by a domestic slave trade. At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. These countries became involved in a race to acquire more territory on the African continent, but this race was open to all European countries. Prior to colonialism, the extended family structure (family that extends beyond the immediate family) was the norm in most African societies, but by the end of colonial era, the nuclear family (family consisting of a pair of adults/ parents and their children) was becoming the norm in many African countries. Their primary concern was the conversion of people to Christianity. “The Scramble for Africa and the Berlin Conference”. As Britain increasingly colonised more and more African countries, the British had become the dominant power along the coast, and they began annexing and laying claim to territory gradually. By the end of the 11th century some entire states, and influential individuals in others, were Muslim. But inland the story was different -- Muslim traders from north of the Sahara and on the East Coast still traded inland, and many local chiefs were reluctant to give up the use of slaves. In January 1902, Britain finally added Asante to its protectorates on the Gold Coast. “A brief history of European Colonisation in Africa”. Stories were told and handed down generations in verbal form. However, all of this brought financial challenges, and saw the policy of making the colonies pay come in to force in the Gold Coast for the first time. Hardly any crops were produced, and the food shortage which followed caused the death of many people and animals. That implied that the British no longer recognized the Ashanti or the Fanti as having independent governments. The resistance was led by Yaa Asantewaa, the Queen-Mother of Ejisu. The British sent 1,400 troops from other parts of Africa, and the Asante’s nine-month struggle for independence failed. 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