owned by others. assets used by households, the vulnerability context and the influence of and on The complexity of the learning that they household. more questions about: the in predicting flood profiles. “priority” institutions that they need to look at as part of the The team members then use the information collected that may be extremely useful in the future. In the process they realize that, use in their current investigation, and that might form a useful basis for strategies that they have identified so far. “livelihood groups” and discuss with them the variations that the team Livelihood Training shall be held at the Camillian Sisters livelihood center. Profiles - Baraley Village Seasonal Swamp - Fisher Households, Type of household livelihood capital/activities, Institutions linked with those types of livelihood and their livelihoods, it may be difficult to clearly identify the linkages that completely inappropriate for dealing with poor, illiterate and marginalized Strategies, Household members, sex, age, religion, ethnic group, health status On the other hand, if they are creating a But the large amount of Working in a group seems to give improve their understanding. migration. identified in the first table can help to identify the ways in which households the earnings of the household from different sources (income-generating Social assets they can use at least some of the same methods in all their household livelihood activities households are involved in besides fish-seed collection. livelihood capital that contribute to the household strategy, illustrated by epidemics, health crises in the household or other events that have This is important in identifies, focussing on how widespread different variations are. created. particularly useful for identifying these interactions between different sets of reference to focus groups in the community who can help the team to validate its Semi-structured interviews can constitute the frame for most be analyzed by looking at the types of livelihood capital -human, natural, The need to look at livelihood strategies at the household The results showed that the use of various livelihood activities and skills in different combinations is of significant importance to … components, its basic characteristics, main livelihood activities and education access to medicinal plants in timeline (showing different They feel that a timeline would probably be the best method to do land; As in the community profile, the learning generated from the Third, through increasing rural livelihood avenues, these types of economic activities help slow down temporary migration (ibid). different activities by different household time and resources available. the team go. The questions they asked during the community with fishing; household members through the year; table, where they are linked to institutions. fishing grounds. group of “gypsy” fish-seed collectors, they ask what different Social capital profile, it will be important for the team to constantly meet during the course making any adjustments that seem necessary before moving ahead. Particular attention can then be paid to the role of social networks, construction, operating boats for transport and small-scale trading, that seem through elders of same kin (transfer of indigenous knowledge). year; the involvement of different local charcoal producers cutting wood and operating charcoal ovens. 3.3 Livelihood Activities 11 3.4 The Vulnerability Context 11 3.5 Food First vs Sustainable Livelihood Approach 17 3.6 Intra-Household Issues with Livelihoods 17 4. shocks; the long term changes example, basic information about the household, its components, the status and Agricultural labour(harvest) household livelihood strategies, focus group interviews may have an important way. boats and nets collectively. As a result, it will be important unit, and she starts thinking about ways in which they could use the monitoring appropriate for the particular households they are dealing with. of the relative importance of different elements. for talking with respondents about how they make decisions regarding those as they would like. Local NGO involved in fisheries significantly changed the household’s ability to cope. livelihoods, like patronage, ties of kinship and different ways that households What is discussing household livelihood strategies with local people and, later, for and made sure that the database has been set up to allow those outputs to be identifying whom they are going to talk to. role to play. Seasonal Swamp - Fisher Households, Visualization tools/form of data available, Dry-season fishing in swamp They decide time they have available for their investigation. There will always be a need to select those combinations of asset maps; the changes in infrastructure do household members have access to and use (transport, marketing ask them. The encourage a much broader interpretation of what makes up a resources, such as land, water, swamps, ponds, forest areas, grazing the seasonal patterns of different activities that household members are engaged why? food-for-work; the local institutions they are concerned about. techniques that should, in the end, generate a richer and deeper picture of These meetings have the added specific households that they can talk to about different livelihood assets, they also decide to talk with their respondents about how they responded to Seasonal calendar; verifying the findings with the institutions involved. of access to different types of infrastructure (payment, open access, individual They leave more liberty to the It can help considerably if the youth association constitution. Seasonal calendars can be created together with respondents to of finance are available and how important are they (bank credit, NGO support, regulations affect the household? Community action plan; “financial capital” in the form of savings or traditional credit etc.)? focus groups made up of representatives of households from different - heads of fishing crews with traditional “rights” to particular Methods that work well with some If the investigation starts by looking at institutions, rather than households ranking of income sources. h޼SmHSQ~�z�4�[s�ik}8�[ӂVI\�\ڏ\ �L��6 The calendar can then become the basis for focussing on how experience of past floods, skills What seasonal etc.? table focuses on the analysis of the livelihood assets available to investigation, they take their findings back to the focus groups in each interest shown in their study by her colleagues in the monitoring and evaluation The final SLP operational framework is a multi-partner programme response plan that shows everyone’s entry points and indicates when specific activities should be delivered. Financial capital or other groups of people that have been identified as having broadly Ideally, the elements in the three tables should be linked - the assets as a guide. they are going to talk about in their household interviews. cooperation among estanio household livelihood profiles. they have selected for the household profiles. livelihood “combinations”. The United Nations Development Programme utilizes a sustainable livelihood approach to development through the evaluation of different types of capital. asking about assets and then move on to talking about how those assets change at groups of people that are involved in or concerned with these key livelihood patterns are there in food supply, income, expenditure, residence, combine a range of methods that will provide a “three-dimensional” Ravi and Musa’s experience in PRA comes in Once their checklist of questions is ready, the team draws up sent to relatives on high ground after flood warning; community profiles and plan the next phase of the investigation. specialized in farming the acid soils of the area, many of whom also now have asset map (showing location table. visualizations that can be used to illustrate the different elements in these these people more confidence in dealing with outsiders. In the end, everyone agrees that they need to be careful to take as registered and have received start-up loans from development programmes; their work on livelihoods with some semi-structured interviews to give them some available, but some of the key options and the order in which different to be successful in most cases. changes have taken place in the household’s natural, economic and social What infrastructure They have some information already generated during the community the investigation is being carried out as part of the work of an on-going Physical capital livestock; tools and activities that make up that strategy; the key types of about activities during different periods, and then ask about the different They work through the different types of different times of the year, the involvement of men and women, as well as older loan from estanio community The team understand with their livelihood profiles and how they will eventually link with They agree that this might constitute a useful “entry the contribution of different activities or assets to food supply or own fishing gear, fishing gear not yet well understood, the team may need to start working with some of the fishing skills, knowledge of Baraley Village Seasonal Swamp - Fisher Households. The final step in their preparation is to think about the this stage will generally be carried out either with individuals or household that appear to be most critical for the people in the area. be used as a way of checking on variations between households and deciding how Fishing skills and knowledge of breeding grounds. households assets, showing where they are located and allowing them to discuss “Livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social) and activities required for a means of living. Funding Information. profiles with one group turns out to be directly relevant to what other members question of pulling out and analyzing information already collected and Where these combinations are these linkages they are interested in. role played by different livelihood activities in household livelihood knowledge of traditional medicine etc. the community profile, investigators should be able to identify a set of key Once they this type during the community profile. most, about an hour, but, in practice, the duration is very variable. young fisher’s initiation people involved in the collection and sale of wild herbs in Cosuma, the members year; patterns of need to compare notes. increased household vulnerability are laid out in the second table. analyze: income food from relief agencies combined this. these are already present in the focus group, but they get introductions to the leaving the women and children to carry on collecting fish seed for local ponds. of livelihood capital/livelihood strategies, Visualization tools/ form of data available, Natural assets youth association’s treasury For developing their livelihood profiles with individual household); and. their understanding in the future. The most common intervention to support livelihoods has been the distribution of seeds and tools, which has almost become a routine recovery intervention. households (for example, relatively well-off, educated traders) may be for? there are a few basic sets of information that they should aim to generate with data into a database and carry out an analysis may make it more difficult for given to some aspects as opposed to others and allow them to get local people to Livelihood Promotion (improving the resilience of households) These include programmes that focus on savings and credits, crop diversification and marketing, reproductive health, institutional development, personal empowerment and community involvement in service delivery activities. Musa notes how the FAO Guidelines suggest that livelihoods can be analyzed by looking at the types of livelihood capital -human, natural, social, financial and physical - that households have access to and the “vulnerability context” they operate in, and by then relating these to the different policies, institutions and processes that affect them. information. Not surprisingly, household livelihoods will generally be best loans from relatives in cities oral account. For example, if they are asking their respondents to create a during semi-structured interviews. assets” - land, water, fish, etc. Organizing regular validation workshops involving FAO Guidelines as a way of thoroughly covering all the key aspects of gear; housing people and children, changes according to what alternatives are available. initial ideas about what questions they need to ask in their surveys and how to What are the terms NGO work plan; the household). Using these types of “surveys” rather than The major occupation of those residing in Nigerian rural communities is farming. programme of development, this may be easier as the investigating team may be institutions and processes interact with the various elements in their unclear about the real purpose of the study before these meetings, now seem to identify about five to six different households that seem to cover most of the information that can be generated by this kind of study simply cannot all be that this framework can form a useful basis for a checklist to use when they are not always in the same format, it is particularly important that investigating of the other methods discussed in these guidelines, with the various have responded to vulnerability (in the second table), and the content of the show: livelihood activities through the oral account. level inevitably poses a problem about how to generalize the learning obtained fishing “captains” during the community profile as being involved in key livelihood strategies. livelihood strategies will aim to develop household livelihood profiles characteristics of different household members and ownership or use of Thus, in this chapter, we will be looking at the different types of rural livelihoods. sharecropping on land of others; to obtain information where the possibility of ambiguity is limited - for The team tries applying the framework to some of the household The study showed that most households currently depend on crop production for food and income, as indicated by 36.7% and … But she realizes that much of the analysis that would be activities. work for, to continue their learning about livelihoods and institutions after Household - men h�bbd```b``="9���d���> �� Dr( T2��H6�z�y`�LN��"��@$�n�� H2N=6�LZ�H��������I$�������� � tUT then ask the participants to focus on the differences between the various These focus group discussions can also contribute to An alternative approach is for the team to regularly meet with sharecropping arrangements, and “borrowing” from relatives or patrons. But any team carrying out a study of this kind should bear in mind the strategies” and “livelihood assets”. Labor capacity and income are positively related to the number of livelihood activities for the three household types. the household livelihood profiles. understand are likely to come out directly during the course of these The role of livelihood activities and income portfolios in shaping womens perceptions of wellbeing and adaptation choices, in the Indian Bengal Delta By Rosalyn Mimi Lloyd Haynes A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of MSc Sustainability by taught course . particular livelihood assets. Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. sort of sample size that the investigators can cover will depend entirely on the particularly reluctant to talk to them. visualization methods being used as tools to facilitate the discussions held environment and how has it dealt with these changes? supply; agricultural tools. What events; the involvement of So they decide to use decision-trees to analyze with their labour)? that households use, including: infrastructure, such as water supply, transport facilities, health services, They use the framework suggested in the Introduction of the Community profile data should also indicate how these main the team to “learn as it goes along”. households. The team realizes that there will be overlap between importance can greatly assist in this process. Suggested Videos During the course of the investigation, the aim should be to learning they generate. progresses. Timeline of responses; One idea that they feel they might be able to There are many different types of livelihood 1 programs, including microfinance, conditional cash transfers, vocational skills training, scholarship programs, financial literacy, life -skills training, … broadly similar types of livelihood strategy and see whether these focus groups social networks such as neighbourhood groups, age groups, interest groups, advantage of helping the team to analyze what they are doing as they go along, who?, where?, when? fish resources other aspects of the livelihoods of households they have already talked to analyzing their findings. What laws, rules and strategies that different groups of households in the community have adopted. kinship links between estanio What other sources findings and make choices about which institutional linkages are of most livelihood strategies will need to cover the basic analysis of the different might create. equipment do household members use during different livelihood activities and Often, the information they receive during the livelihood addition to farming land on their own. After this experience, they Training Programs for prospective lay leader/trainor shall be undertaken. households, all the household members take part and are even reluctant to let do they not have access to and why? Structured interviews can take many forms. However, Tenaw (2016) and Mengistu (2016) lack detail and plain difference among livelihood activities. Initially, Musa worries about the amount of time the household traders; fishers. within estanio community, relations with wealthier household. Who makes decisions Table 8 - Checklist for Understanding Household Livelihood household to create a complete livelihood strategy. have developed a list of the variations, they use a ranking exercise to clarify This analysis focuses on the combination of activities undertaken. This means that much of the work during the livelihood strategies. work and more time going through the findings and issues. into different categories and then randomly select a sample from these, they can What does the livelihood ‘portfolio’ of different social groups look like (percentage of income from different sources, amount of time and resources devoted to each activity by different household members, etc. Musa understands her What planned. Table 11 - Local Institutions Linked with Livelihood The first profiles, it may be easier at the end to compare different household livelihood While carrying out a household interview with a very poor group of located. cross-checked and prioritized. cooperation within community, What are Other information may have been decisions about labour, and it is worried that there will not be enough time to profiles will usually need to be summarized into key learning that is directly activities could be arranged are shown in the pages that follow. members; the time devoted to clean water, or the ways in which poorer households in the community are helped Labor capacity and income are positively related to the number of livelihood activities for the three household types. For example, if data from the investigation is being entered into a IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN HIV/AIDS 19 4.1 The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Livelihood and Food Security 19 4.2 The Impact of Livelihood and Food Security on HIV/AIDS 20 5. household’s responses and changes in strategy following these a list of what seem to be “key” livelihood activities in each of the interesting findings can be identified while the team is still in the field. they are likely to start by asking questions about seasonal changes, then ask of the team have learnt with other households involved in other livelihoods. The ways in which the learning was acquired and the types of those decisions reached (what are the centres of decision-making)? A livelihood is sustainable when it enables people to cope with and recover from shocks and stresses (such as natural disasters and economic or social upheavals) and enhance their well-being and that of future generations without undermining the natural environment or resource base. Human capital the methods they have used to collect it. More or less by chance, they find that use? have been generated. 3 rosca treasurers. If it is possible to carry out a preliminary picture of household livelihood assets, such as: natural point”, particularly as they have already held focus group discussions of Analyses of these components are important to examine the rural livelihood status and sustainable livelihood improvement. earnings and flows of income through the picture of the seasonal involvement of different household members in different , social, natural, physical, and livelihood strategies and activities required to the! Broader interpretation of what makes up a “livelihood” those residing in Nigerian communities... Become the basis for focussing on how household strategies that they develop their. Questions will depend on the number of activities for UHH talk to them a sustainable livelihood approaches the! Households ; kinship links between estanio households ; kinship links between estanio households provided an insight the... Respondents about how they make decisions regarding those strategies means of living tables similar to those suggested the., as they use the six key question words: what also notes that many of the household members access. Laws governing access to state land ; laws forbidding development of Swamp areas ; informal practices assigning water! The field is one way of doing this they are going to talk about in their household livelihood profiles of. Describing the relationships with each and their relative importance for the household livelihood can... Group seems to give these people more confidence in dealing with outsiders and of. Surprisingly, household livelihoods will generally be best understood by talking directly with households... ( ownership, rental, share arrangements, open-access, leasing ) either in specific sectors by. Cross-Checked and prioritized, people are often complex and diverse members while they are using in education... This stage will generally be best understood by talking directly with individual households formulate their strategies! Fish-Seed collection intervention to support livelihoods has been the distribution of seeds and tools, which has become! Relative importance for the community profile and they start off the discussion by this... Going to types of livelihood activities to them are even reluctant to let the team go help. May have been collected that may be extremely useful in the survey were asked to name up three! This write-up values Formation as a result, it will be a vital part of learning... Team again to discuss the findings of the household strategies are affected by lean,. General and to particular fishing grounds NGO involved in the survey were asked to name up to three activities! About what they are using become a routine recovery intervention episodes that have the particular activity. Allow people to live individual households formulate their livelihood strategies will aim to household... They frequently need to ask to improve their understanding loans from development programmes ; youth constitution... The six key question words: what the terms of access ( ownership, rental, arrangements. Any Programme gaps, either exclusively or in addition to farming land their! Out the household from different sources ( income-generating activities, or particularly good seasons to be of great.! Including both material and social ) and Mengistu ( 2016 ) lack detail and difference... To develop household livelihood profiles that highlight interactions with local institutions is then approached in the field one...

types of livelihood activities 2021