It was a narrow mountainspur[9] overhanging the descent into the plain. download 1 file . Cf. It provides up-to-date guidance on literary, historical and cultural aspects of the Anabasis and will help undergraduate students to read Greek better. 480, and at Plataea and Mycale, B.C. Such wereyour forefathers, and their sons are ye. You know, I need hardlyremind you, it is not numbers or strength that gives victory in war;but, heaven helping them, to one or other of two combatants it is 42given to dash with stouter hearts to meet the foe, and such onset, innine cases out of ten, those others refuse to meet. And Ariaeus, whom we offered to make king, withwhom we exchanged pledges not to betray each other, even this man,without a particle of fear of the gods, or respect for Cyrus in hisgrave, though he was most honoured by Cyrus in lifetime, even he hasturned aside to the worst foes of Cyrus, and is doing his best toinjure the dead man's friends. Clearchus ended, and Tissaphernes respondedthus--. And now, whenthe Hellenes saw that they were really and clearly gone, they toobroke up their camp and pursued their march till they had traversedseven and a half miles. Its notes added wings to the flight of thebarbarians, but the Hellenes turned right about in the oppositedirection, and betook themselves to the river with what speed theymight. ita ut juveni et in tantis admittenda rebus. The inflorescences are elongated or condensed spikes. Accordingly, whenever the van wasobstructed, Xenophon, from behind, made a dash up the hills and brokethe barricade, and freed the vanguard by endeavouring to get above theobstructing enemy. Arrian, Anabasis A.G. Roos, Ed. . x. The agreement was, that if they succeeded intaking the summit they were to guard the position that night, and atdaybreak to give a signal by bugle. amicorum et vanitatem ementiendae stirpis. With thisunderstanding, off they set, two thousand strong; and there was aheavy downpour of rain, but Xenophon, with his rearguard, beganadvancing to the visible pass, so that the enemy might fix hisattention on this road, and the party creeping round might, as much aspossible, elude observation. This officer rode up to the Helleneswith a body of cavalry, and sending forward an interpreter, statedthat he desired a colloquy with the leaders. Indeed, many herds of cattle had beencaught whilst being conveyed across to the other side of the river.And now Tissaphernes and his troops made an attempt to burn thevillages, and some of the Hellenes were disposed to take the matterdeeply to heart, being apprehensive that they might not know where toget provisions if the enemy burnt the villages. There was amist, so that they could get quite close without being observed. [4] I.e. Proxenus eagerly pressed him tostop--a request which Cyrus with like ardour supported, adding that assoon as the campaign was over he would send him home. "The other answered him: "The reason is plain; look yonder; this crestwhich overhangs our descent has been occupied. Rely upon this then, all you who are here assembled, now isyour great opportunity. [3] For a less repulsive conception of Menon's character, however unhistorical, see Plato's "Meno," and Prof. Jowlett's Introduction, "Plato," vol. Advanced full-text search ... Anabasis. For you call no man masteror lord; you bow your heads to none save to the gods alone. ITEM TILE download. [11] Some MSS. But when it was late afternoon, the time had come for the enemy to 34withdraw, since the habit of the barbarian was never to encamp withinseven or eight miles of the Hellenic camp. And you, who know all this, howcan you say that it is mere nonsense to talk of self-defence? Anabasis, Book 4 Xenophon Full view - 1883. And at asomewhat later date, when Xerxes assembled his countless hosts andmarched upon Hellas, then[4] too our fathers conquered the forefathersof our foes by land and by sea. Honours and highestate he craved for simply that he might extend the area of hisgains; and if he studied to be on friendly terms with the powerful, itwas in order that he might commit wrong with impunity. At this, the Asiatics stood discussing with one another for a longwhile, and then they went away without vouchsafing a word. The party with the guide made a circuit and surprised the enemy'sguards seated round their fire, and after killing some, and drivingout the rest, took their places, thinking that they were in possessionof the height. "Now, however, that they have abruptly ended the truce, there is anend also to their own insolence and to our suspicion. When nothing could be got out of him, hewas killed before the eyes of his fellow. Ariaeus answered:"There is no doubt but that Clearchus has been known for some time toharbour designs agaisnt Tissaphernes and Orontas, and all of us whoside with them." Butthe enemy in position on the crest no sooner perceived their advanceupon the summit of the pass than they themselves set off full tilt ina rival race for the summit too. As to Menon the Thessalian[3], the mainspring of his action wasobvious; what he sought after insatiably was wealth. After that theyasked, "Were there any captains of light infantry willing to accompanythe expedition?" "Howbeit, for I doubt not elsewhere similar reflections are beingmade, whatsoever betide, let us not, in heaven's name, wait for othersto come and challenge us to noble deeds; let us rather take the leadin stimulating the rest to valour. Thereat Mithridates set himself to proveto them that their deliverance, except with the king's good pleasure,was hopeless. In this pursuitthe Asiatics lost several of their infantry killed, and of theircavalry as many as eighteen were taken prisoners in the ravine. Nor did this villagestand alone; there were others not a few in this plain of the Tigrisequally overflowing with plenty. It may be safer, then, to marchin a hollow square, so as to place the baggage animals and our mob ofsutlers in greater security. The other was well pleased, and with the first faint gleam of dawn thegenerals all were present and did sacrifice; and the victims werefavourable in the first essay. . Literally translated, with a commentary, from the Greek of Arrian, the Nicomedian ... FULL TEXT download. But Clearchus wanted the entire army to giveits mind to no one else, and that refractory people should be put outof the way. For myself,if you choose to start forwards on this quest, I will follow; or, ifyou bid me lead you, my age shall be no excuse to stand between me andyour orders. The passage effected, they fell into line about mid-day, and marched 1through Armenian territory, one long plain with smooth rollinghillocks, not less than five parasangs in distance; for owing to thewars of this people with the Carduchians there were no villages nearthe river. Cf. 10What the two young men had at this time to say was that they had beencollecting brushwood for fire, and had presently espied on theopposite side, in among some rocks which came down to the river'sbrink, an old man and some women and little girls depositing, as itwould appear, bags of clothes in a cavernous rock. Natural affection he clearly entertainedfor nobody. "And yet, if we yield ourselves and fall into the king's power, needwe ask what our fate will be? Next day they set off without a guide; and the enemy, by keeping up acontinuous battle and occupying in advance every narrow place,obstructed passage after passage. [2] These words sound to me like an author's note, parenthetically, and perhaps inadvertently, inserted into the text. "Since, however," continued Socrates, "you did soput the question, you should do what the god enjoined." of Lusi (or Lusia), a town (or district) in Northern Arcadia. Some of the officers findingthemselves baulked at this point, kept trying other ways, nor did theydesist till darkness set in; and then, when they thought they wouldnot be seen retiring, they returned to supper. Yet it was not withoutpurpose that he applied the whip; he had a theory that there was nogood to be got out of an unchastened army. He seldom introduces his simplicity and his unbiassed judgment. ", At this point Cleanor the Ochomenian stood up and spoke as follows:"You see, men, the perjury and the impiety of the king. From this village they marched two stages--ten parasangs--until theyhad surmounted the sources of the river Tigris; and from this pointthey marched three stages--fifteen parasangs--to the river Teleboas.This was a fine stream, though not large, and there were many villagesabout it. The basement was 10made of polished stone full of shells; fifty feet was the breadth ofit, and fifty feet the height; and on this basement was reared a wallof brick, the breadth whereof was fifty feet and the height thereoffour hundred; and the circuit of the wall was six parasangs. As touching the gods, therefore, and our oaths, that is howI view this matter. When theywere across, Mithridates appeared again with one thousand horse, andarchers and slingers to the number of four thousand. Thereupon Xenophon spoke as follows: "We all know only too well, that 34the king and Tissaphernes have seized as many of us as they could, andit is clear they are plotting to destroy the rest of us if they can.Our business is plain: it is to do all we can to avoid getting intothe power of the barbarians; rather, if we can, we will get them intoour power. As to us, Igo so far as to assert, we ought never to have let it be seen that wewere bent on getting home: at any rate, not so soon; we should havebegun stocking and furnishing ourselves, as if we fully meant tosettle down for life somewhere or other hereabouts. been exchanged between us, and right hands shaken, in token that wewill abstain from mutual injury; but I can see that you watch usnarrowly, as if we were foes; and we, seeing this, watch you narrowlyin return. The advance into thecountry of the Carduchians was conducted with a view partly tosecrecy, and partly to speed, so as to effect their entrybefore the enemy could occupy the passes.]. Whenasked, "What shall you need?" 23; ix. When this detachment were once posted above their pursuers, thelatter desisted from attacking the main body in its descent, for fearof being cut off and finding themselves between two assailants. download 1 file . It will save time to make theappointments at once, and to settle who leads the square and directsthe vanguard; who will take command of the two flanks, and who of therearguard; so that, when the enemy appears, we shall not need todeliberate, but can at once set in motion the machinery in existence. They were in the act of recrossing, whenXenophon, who saw their intention, sent a messenger across, biddingthem wait there at the river's brink without crossing; but as soon ashe and his detachment began to cross they were to step in facing himin two flanking divisions right and left of them, as if in the act ofcrossing; the javelin men with their javelins on the thong, and thebowmen with their arrows on the string; but they were not to advancefar into the stream. No one at all Whatfollows? 22. These theyagreed to restore if he would not burn their houses, and to theseterms Xenophon agreed. But we will beeven with them; if they leave provisions for themselves anywhere,there also shall they see us marching;" and, turning to Cheirisophus,he added: "But it strikes me, we should sally forth against theseincendiaries and protect our country." I know that the Mysians are a cause of troubleto you, and I flatter myself that with my present force I could renderthem humbly obedient to you. A saying of his is recordedto the effect that the soldier who is to mount guard and keep hishands off his friends, and be ready to dash without a moment'shesitation against the foe--must fear his commander more than theenemy. Equals-in-Honour, or Peers, spent their time about the Court. Please informme, then, as to what you propose, regarding me as your friend andwell-wisher, anxious only to pursue his march in your company." [3] See Herod. After this thegenerals were chosen. At the point where they had themselves been last night, up on themountains, they could see the Carduchians collected in large numbersand under arms. It appears again fifty years later in the author's pamphlet "On Revenues," chapters i. and vi. thatwe were not to fire the king's country, they are now themselvesdoing--setting fire to it as if it were not their own. 8; Athenæus, x. p. "Thefact is," he added, "I was driven to pursue; it was too trying to lookon and see our men suffer so badly, and be unable to retaliate.However, when we did charge, there is no denying the truth of what yousay; we were not a whit more able to injure the enemy, while we hadconsiderable difficulty in beating a retreat ourselves. 37). When discharging the arrow, theydraw the string by getting a purchase with the left foot planted 28forward on the lower end of the bow. the conduct of battles and sieges. Indeed, heshowed a more delicate regard for his soldiers than his subordinatesfor him, and he was indisputably more apprehensive of incurring theirhatred than they were of losing their fidelity. He claims them as his, sincethey belonged to Cyrus, who was his slave." Butwhen they were once encamped, and the barbarians, advancing upon thevillage, made an attempt to harass them with their sharp-shooters, thesuperiority of the Hellenes was pronounced. The police at Athens were technically so called, as being composed of Scythian slaves. We haveheard of the Mysians, a people whom we certainly cannot admit to bebetter than ourselves; and yet they inhabit numbers of large andprosperous cities in the king's own country without asking leave. Withhim you have murdered the very men to whom you gave your solemn wordand oath, and to the rest of us turned traitors; and, having so done, 39you join hand with our enemies to come against us." arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them. He sprung up in terror,and pondering the matter, decided that in part the dream was good: inthat he had seen a great light from Zeus, whilst in the midst of toiland danger. Soteridas was notspared by the rest of the men. 35, that the Egyptians had revolted from the Persians towards the end of the reign of Darius. At any rate they have deserted us, and sought refuge withthem. "May be, however, you are in good heart about the fighting, butannoyed to think that Tissaphernes will not guide us any more, andthat the king will not furnish us with a market any longer. I ask you, does it seem to you that we lack the means, if we hadthe will, to destroy you? Anabasis definition: the march of Cyrus the Younger and his Greek mercenaries from Sardis to Cunaxa in... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Thusthe rest of the day they moved on in two divisions: one set keeping tothe road by the hillocks, the other marching parallel on the higherlevel along the mountains; and thus they reached the villages andappointed eight surgeons to attend to the many wounded. I confine myself to the following facts,which are known to all. Let all those who are infavour of this proposal hold up their hands." But Xenophon had adream. Surely, just because they are friends ofboth parites, they will try to give us the best advice for you and forus.". arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website. But when the Hellenes, being so pressed, made an attempt to pursue,they could barely scale to the summit, being heavy-armed troops, whilethe enemy as lightly sprung away; and they suffered similarly inretiring to join the rest of the army. [2] We learn from Diodorus Siculus, xiv. Meanwhilethe soothsayers were slaying a victim over the river, and the enemywere letting fly their arrows and slingstones; but as yet they wereout of range. "Why, when we had it in our power to destroy you, did we not proceedto do it? IBZ Online Internationale Bibliographie der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Zeitschriftenliteratur [International bibliography of periodical literature in the humanities and social sciences] At the time of his death he musthave been about fifty years of age. So too, I am sure, he would be only too gladto accommodate us in the same way, if he saw us preparing to settledown here. I hope that there may be many more like you, for itwould prove a public blessing." They were Proxenus the Boeotian, Menon theThessalian, Agias the Arcadian, Clearchus the Laconian, and Socratesthe Achaean; while the captains remained at the doors. In like manner, the possessions of hisfoes were secure from his designs, since it was no easy task, hethought, to steal from people on their guard; but it was hisparticular good fortune to have discovered how easy it is to rob afriend in the midst of his security. Now,consider, is it better for us to have a guide like Tissaphernes, whomwe know to be plotting against us, or to take our chance of the straypeople whom we catch and compel to guide us, who will know that anymistake made in leading us will be a sad mistake for their own lives?Again, is it better to be buying provisions in a market of theirproviding, in scant measure and at high prices, without even the moneyto pay for them any longer; or, by right of conquest, to helpourselves, applying such measure as suits our fancy best? They were under the command ofStratocles, a Cretan. It wasconjectured that they had left their position from fear of beingencircled and besieged, but the fact was that they, from their higherground, had been able to see what was going on in the rear, and hadall made off in this fashion to attack the rearguard. By the side of this city there was a stone pyramid inbreadth a hundred feet, and in height two hundred feet; in it weremany of the barbarians who had fled for refuge from the neighbouringvillages. At this stage of the march Cheirisophus, at thehead of his own division, with the whole of the light troops, led thevan, while Xenophon followed behind with the heavy infantry of therearguard, but without any light troops, since there seemed to be nodanger of pursuit or attack from the rear, while they were makingtheir way up hill. The resolution wascarried. By the time the new generals had been chosen, the first faint glimmer 1of dawn had hardly commenced, as they met in the centre of the camp,and resolved to post an advance guard and to call a general meeting ofthe soldiers. Purchase a copy of this text (not necessarily the same edition) from This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License . 19; v. 12; ix. That day they remained inactive, but the next they rose earlier than 1usual, and set out betimes, for they had a ravine to cross, where theyfeared the enemy might attack them in the act of crossing. Aristeas, a Chian, who on several occasions provedhis usefulness to the army on such service, volunteered. is a masterly production, and Arrian shows that he himself possessed a (1884) by Arrian , translated by Edward James Chinnock The Anabasis of Alexander Though it may be looked upon as a supplement to the Anabasis, Arrian often refers in the one work to the other. Or is mere living an objectwith any of you, strive to conquer; if to slay is the privilege ofvictory, to die is the doom of the defeated. But Soteridas theSicyonian said: "We are not on equal terms, Xenophon; you are mounted 47on a horse; I can hardly get along with my shield to carry;" and he,on hearing the reproach, leapt from his horse. Nay, itis very meet and right that you should be more undaunted still to-dayto face the foe. Nay, there are some whichyou will not be able to cross at all, unless we transport you to theother side. Get to the Text Find the text: Open Content Alliance Find the full book: Open Content Alliance mods2: Get to the Text Find the text: Open Content Alliance Find the full book: Open Content Alliance. Again, if you seek the friendship ofany of your neighbours round, there shall be no friend so great asyou; if any one annoys you, with us as your faithful servitors youshall belord it over him; and such service we will render you, not ashirelings merely for pay's sake, but for the gratitude which we shallrightly feel to you, to whom we owe our lives. Afterthis achievement the barbarians came to a crest facing the mamelon,and Xenophon held a colloquy with them by means of an interpreter, tonegotiate a truce, and demanded back the dead bodies. After that, we will there summon a general meetingof the soldiers. Haunted by such thoughts, and with hearts full of despair, but few ofthem tasted food that evening; but few of them kindled even a fire,and many never came into camp at all that night, but took their restwhere each chanced to be. But with the morrow's dawn they espied horsemen at a certain pointacross the river, armed cap-a-pie, as if they meant to dispute thepassage. But as soon as these sacred matters were duly ended, he beganonce more thus: "I was saying that many and bright are the hopes wehave of safety. Xenophon: The Anabasis of Xenophon: chiefly according to the text of L. Dindorf, with notes for the use of schools and colleges, (New York, D. Appleton & co., 1871), ed. Everything, moreover, which is not necessary to make his 3. When all was duly ordered the move began, the young men pioneeringthem, and keeping the river on their left. 541: "Even as she spake, and Telemachus sneezed loudly, and around the roof rung wondrously. what is happening at this instant? vii. [In the preceding pages of the narrative will be found a fullaccount, not only of the doings of the Hellenes during theadvance of Cyrus till the date of the battle, but of the inci-dents which befell them after Cyrus' death at the commencementof the retreat, while in company with Tissaphernes during thetruce.]. or where blows are needed, how are we to fight to the bestadvantage? That is howXenophon came to join the expedition, deceived indeed, though not byProxenus, who was equally in the dark with the rest of the Hellenes,not counting Clearchus, as to the intended attack upon the king. great merits of the work, independent of those already mentioned, is There the enemypreferred not to wait, but fled towards the ravine. He approached the Hellenes as if he were friendly;but when they had got fairly to close quarters, all of a sudden someof them, whether mounted or on foot, began shooting with their bowsand arrows, and another set with slings, wounding the men. Thereupon Hieronymous the Eleian, the eldest of Proxenus's captains,commenced speaking as follows: "Generals and captains, it seemed rightto us, in view of the present crisis, ourselves to assemble and tosummon you, that we might advise upon some practicable course. Here there was a return of the old despondency. Thenight advances; with the day, it is like enough, the enemy will beupon us. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation There was the feeling of confidence in facing thefoe, which never left them, and there was the dread of punishment athis hands to keep them orderly. We need feel no alarm for all that. 984 Europe and Asia. Cf. This: Officers and leaders ought to be more vigilant everthan their predecessors; subordinates still more orderly and obedientto those in command now than even they were to those who are gone. So wasit when the Persians came, and their attendant hosts[3], with a verygreat armament, to wipe out Athens from the face of the earth--the menof Athens had the heart to withstand them and conquered them. Well,then! The man who was not a rogue he ever looked upon asonly half educated. He had no reverenceeven for Zeus, the god of strangers; but, after entertaining Clearchusat his own board as a friend, he used his hospitality to delude anddecoy his victims. This is the testimony of all who knewhim intimately. They could not close their eyes for verypain and yearning after their fatherlands or their parents, the wifeor child whom they never expected to look upon again. You see thefaithlessness of Tissaphernes, professing that he was next-doorneighbour to Hellas, and would give a good deal to save us, inconfirmation of which he took an oath to us himself, he gave us thepledge of his right hand, and then, with a lie upon his lips, thissame man turned round and arrested our generals. For Ihave known people ere now, the victims in some cases of calumny, orpossibly of mere suspicion, who in apprehension of one another andeager to deal the first blow, have committed irreparable wrong againstthose who neither intended nor so much as harboured a thought ofmischief against them. But, whilestill on this stage, Tissaphernes made his appearance. When it is open to him to enjoy peacewith honour, no shame, no injury attached, still he prefers war; whenhe may live at home at ease, he insists on toil, if only it may end infighting; when it is given to him to keep his riches without risk, hewould rather lessen his fortune by the pastime of battle. At least I am of full age, I take it, to avert misfortunefrom my own head. As I dwell on thesematters, I confess, the idea of your feeling mistrust of us is soastonishing, that I would give much to discover the name of the man,who is so clever of speech that he can persuade you that we harbourdesigns against you." Then there are the Egyptians[2]. He had grown contemptuoussince his late attack, when, with so small a detachment, he had done,as he thought, a good deal of mischief, without the slightest loss tohimself. The Medes once dwelt in it. Capable to a singular degree of devising how hisarmy was to get supplies, and of actually getting them, he was alsocapable of impressing upon those about him that Clearchus must beobeyed; and that he brought about by the very hardness of his nature.With a scowling expression and a harshly-grating voice, he chastisedwith severity, and at times with such fury, that he was sorryafterwards himself for what he had done. For on the one side were exceedingly high mountains; onthe other a river of such depth that they failed to reach the bottomwith their spears. acquainted with this work of Arrian’s can refuse his assent to the historical critic. Andyou should pass a resolution that, in case of insubordination, any one 31who stands by is to aid the officer in chastising the offender. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: [6] I.e., in practising, in order to get the maximum range they let fly the arrows, not horizontally, but up into the air. The first said no; andin spite of all sorts of terrors applied to extract a betteranswer--"no," he persisted. But the rest visited the ranks, and wherever ageneral was left, they summoned the general; where he was gone, thelieutenant-general; and where again the captain alone was left, thecaptain. life drew near, he wished both his sons to be with him. Cheirisophus reached the summit without any of the 6enemy perceiving him. the Persian leaders were seen flogging their men to the attack. An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that … Accordingly, in any strait, this was the man whom the soldierswere eager to obey, and they would have no other in his place. Cheirisophus and his men, catchingthe sound of the bugle, charged up by the well-marked road, whileothers of the generals pushed their way up by pathless routes, whereeach division chanced to be; the men mounting as they were best able,and hoisting one another up by means of their spears; and these werethe first to unite with the party who had already taken the positionby storm. From the highground down the sheer steep they poured a volley of darts,slingstones, and arrows, which they discharged "under the lash[8],"wounding many, until they got the better of the Hellenic light troops,and drove them for shelter behind the heavy infantry, so that this daythat arm was altogether useless, huddling in the mob of sutlers, both 26slingers and archers alike.

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