2011. For our second explanatory variable, we are using information provided by Nigmann. Initial bargains, meant to instantiate indirect rule, often fell apart when local leaders saw an opportunity to challenge the colonial powers, often underestimating the intensity of the response. In contrast with private colonial actors (for example, traders or missionaries), state agents prioritized territorial control and order over extraction. We begin by dividing the colony into six general regions along roughly equally sized east-west corridors. German South West Africa (German: Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915, though Germany did not officially recognise its loss of this territory until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. 12 See also Finer 1975. Thies 2007; Tilly 1990. Together with Theodor Mollison he also experimented upon Herero prisoners. The variable Territorial Control Value is then simply the expected overall decrease in minimum distances from each grid cell to its nearest station if a station existed in that grid cell. We add to this work by narrowing our analytical focus to a specific phase of state building: an early and transitional phase in which states face the challenge of establishing authority over newly claimed territories with very limited resources at their disposal. For example, while classic theories view state building as the by-product of a long and arduous process, colonial empires actively attempted to transplant their established understanding of statehood to foreign territories, initially through a strategic process of deepening state penetration and military force. If the local population expected the creation of a German station, they might have engaged in violent resistance to pre-empt its establishment. Again, this does not affect our main findings. 2005. Journal of Democracy 15 (2):17–31. We were unable to discern meaningful patterns in terms of timing, larger geographic region or combatants that correlate with the absence of specific geographic information. 83 Ehrhardt 1903; Schnee 1920; Sethuraj and Mathew 1992. The first agent of German imperialism was Carl Peters, who, with Count Joachim von Pfeil and Karl Juhlke, evaded the sultan of Zanzibar late in 1884 to land on the mainland and made a number of “contracts” in the Usambara area by which several chiefs were said … Whelpton, John. 1984. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914. Out of a total of 235 entries, 200 contain explicit information on the location of the battle. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization. By contrast, cotton is a much more flexible plant. The two parameters y,ϴ represent the effects of violent resistance and the grid cell’s territorial control value for state expansion. 47 Neep 2012, 104–5. Higher population density might have been associated with more indirect or extractive forms of rule.88, Finally, we consider additional logistical factors. 1999. Contrary to the German. When (and where) does this type of state building take place? Section 11 provides additional results for our ordered station-type models that include a lagged dependent variable to account for persistence in the outcome. Review of Economics and Statistics 94 (2):433–61. Natural Rubber: Biology, Cultivation and, Technology. States have to invest military and administrative resources in remote and difficult-to-reach areas in order to signal their resolve and safeguard their entire colonial endeavor. Once war was declared in late July 1914 Britain and its allies promptly moved against the colonies, the public was informed that German colonies were a threat. Our findings contribute to this research by providing evidence of the factors that drove specific instances of rudimentary state building. This video is unavailable. comes from an economic map from 1906. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. Kabwegyere, Tarsis B. Information on state presence and the colony’s socio-economic characteristics is culled from extensive historical records found in German colonial yearbooks and maps. 89 Herbst 2000. The inability to control colonial subjects, in particular the inability to prevent violent uprisings, was interpreted as a sign of weakness and damaged the metropolis’ reputation both domestically and internationally. The second source is a number of thematic maps produced by the colonial government and, various other institutions (such as colonial or missionary societies). Callahan, Mary P. 2002. All in all, German colonies comprised territory that makes up 22 countries today, mostly in Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda. Considering that population size varies greatly between 1,000 and over one million, we use a log-transformed population count. First, our explanation of the sub-national expansion of the state refines and extends classic theories from the comparative politics literature to understand sub-national variation in the pattern of state expansion. Die Klimatischen Bedingungen Für Die Siedlung von Nordeuropäern in Den Tropen. Herbst argues that remoteness is a detriment to state presence due to the higher costs of state penetration.43 We instead argue that high costs should not prevent state expansion when there exists a strategic motive to expand, for example when the expected benefits or the costs of inaction surpass the immediate burden of the investments.44 Consequently, costs will often be a second-order concern in ‘primitive state building’ where the state’s primary objectives are to maximize territorial control and consolidate its authority. German Imperialism in Africa: from the Beginnings to the Second World War [Stoecker, Helmuth] on Amazon.com. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. For example, the massive expansion of the small Gorkha kingdom in the 18th and 19th century to more than the size of present-day Nepal,23 or the conquest of territories many times the size of its original center of power by the pre-colonial kingdom of Burundi in the 17th and 18th centuries,24 or when the Ethiopian state expanded southwards in the second half of the 19th century to establish the ‘Naftagna’ (‘one with gun’) system in newly conquered restive regions to establish order and authority25 are all cases of early phases of state building. It has been argued, for example, that the type and intensity of colonial rule were heavily influenced by levels of pre-colonial ethnic organization and centralization.51, While such structural conditions are likely to shape state building, we want to emphasize that state building generally takes place under conditions of uncertainty and a lack of accurate information – particularly in the very early stages. Finer, Samuel E. 1975. Berman, Bruce J. Good, Bad, and Ugly Colonial Activities: Do They Matter for Economic Development. 25 Tibebu 1995. African Affairs 97 (388):305–41. In most colonies, the main revenues stemmed from tax extraction and agricultural activities that relied heavily on forced labor.40 In other words, most extractive activities depended on people.41 Resistance jeopardized the extraction of these resources, wherever it occurred, by absorbing scarce capital and manpower from colonial economic projects, such as trade, agriculture or public works; driving away foreign private investment; and preventing access to areas with high levels of opposition.42. The Outbreak and Development of the Maji Maji War 1905–1907, edited by Wolfgang Apelt, 1st edition. Organski, Abramo F. K., and Jacek Kugler. The Imperative of State Building. This article seeks to fill this gap by looking at early attempts at state building: it investigates the processes of state penetration in the former colony of German East Africa. We focus on this initial state-building phase to formulate a theoretical argument of, sub-national expansion of the state. Bückendorf, Jutta. From the colonial agents’ perspective, acts of opposition can create violent spillover effects by revealing the state’s weakness and thereby motivating further rebellion, thus threatening the entire state- building project.37 Thus while traders, missionaries and planters may have concentrated on calmer regions with high extractive potential, colonial states were under high internal pressure to design their expansion in a way that allowed them to prevent or suppress any defiance of their authority.38, Secondly, in 1885, colonial powers agreed at the Berlin Conference that all colonial powers had ‘the obligation to ensure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them’.39. German Imperialism Timeline created by yanissa082. Money, Banking, and Public Finance in Africa. 66 Iliffe 1979; Koponen 1995. Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India. Structure and Change in Economic History. American Sociological Review 73 (4):589–612. Next we include a number of geographic features that may have influenced spatio-temporal, patterns of state expansion: elevation, precipitation, the disease environment and temperature. ... German colonization of Africa - Duration: 3:05. Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (1):139–76. For grid cells that already have a station, we assign the strategic value before the station was created – otherwise, grid-cell years with stations would receive a zero strategic value for all years past the initial year with a station, creating an artificial negative correlation between station presence and strategic value.78 We then standardize this variable. In the very next year Bismarck shed personal involvement when he, according to Edward Crankshaw, “abandoned his colonial drive as suddenly and casually as he had started it” as if he had committed an error in judgment that could confuse the substance of his more significant policies. These imperatives were particularly dominant during the late nineteenth century, when European powers were in heightened competition with each other, trying to satiate their hunger for the expansion of their empires. New York: Cambridge University Press. Weber, Eugen. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. 28 Herbst 2000. 97 Gensichen 1902; Renner 1971. Lange, Matthew, James Mahoney, and Matthias vom Hau. By 1890, the military campaign had crushed the revolt and executed its eponymous leader.61 Afterwards, the German government integrated, 56 Berman 1998; Boone 2003; Shenton 1986. Seidman, Ann Willcox. Between 1884 and 1885, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa (today Namibia), Togoland (today the Republic of Togo), the Cameroons (today the Republic of Cameroon), and German East Africa (today Tanzania). Considering that the location of a major battle indicates a certain level of resistance in the surrounding areas, we also measure each grid cell’s distance to the nearest major battle. "The Nature of German Imperialism is an impeccably researched work of interdisciplinary imperialhistory that shifts the geographic and temporal frames of Germany's overseas empire, while making a compelling case that its relatively short-lived imperial enterprise continues to shape East African land-use patterns and cultures of conservation today." 5 New Imperialism refers to a period of enormous colonial expansion, in particular by European powers, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Boone, Catherine. In 1904, the Herero and Nama began a large rebellion that lasted until 1907, ending with the near destruction of the Herero people. We then assigned the group’s population size to the respective grid cell. The first German Rhenish missionaries began working in Southern Africa in the late 1820s and experienced significant success in evangelizing and educating their converts.3 But toward the end of the 19thcentury, a new ‘gospel’ was increasingly introduced to Africa. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper. Tsai, Ming-Chang. Hypothesis 1: Maximizing Territorial Coverage, The primary concern about territorial control suggests that geographic distances played an important role in shaping colonial decisions about costly investments in state presence and capacity. Ethnographic Atlas: A Summary. Predicted probability of a station in grid cell i as a function of Territorial Control Value. Klein-Arendt, Reinhard. Last, we explore this issue further by decomposing the variables into ‘between’ and ‘within’ components and estimate a correlated random-effects model.99 This reveals that both types of variation have a statistically significant and positive effect on station presence for the Territorial Control Value, while Battle Index has a significant effect for its cross-sectional component. Deutsches Kolonial-lexikon [German Colonial Lexicon]. Others who followed, especially Bernhard von Bülow as foreign minister and chancellor, sanctioned the acquisition of the Pacific Ocean colonies and provided substantial treasury assistance to existing protectorates to employ administrators, commercial agents, surveyors, local “peacekeepers,” and tax collectors. (and adaptations to changing political or economic conditions) take time. Colonialism and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Spanish and British Colonies. German native military forces initially engaged in dozens of punitive expeditions to apprehend and punish freedom fighters, at times with British assistance. German Imperialism in Africa: From the Beginnings Until the Second World War | Helmuth Stoecker | ISBN: 9780391033832 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. 95 Gennaoili and Rainer 2007; Nunn 2008. 2000. Many civil wars last for several decades, with rebel groups effectively controlling large portions of a country and displacing state institutions. Rather than analyzing the development of national capabilities, we focus on the ‘sub-national expansion of the state’ as it applies to the spread of state institutions of control through the national territory.2, State building involves a diverse range of functions, from early attempts to establish a rudimentary infrastructure of control and coercion (our focus here) to the penetration of society with a complex web of differentiated state institutions. In recent years scholars have debated the “continuity thesis” that links German colonialist brutalities to the treatment of Jews, Poles, and Russians during World War II. German Imperialism in Africa: From the Beginnings Until the Second World War: Editor: Helmuth Stoecker: Translated by: Bernd Zöllner: Edition: illustrated: Publisher: C. Hurst, 1986: ISBN: 0391033832, 9780391033832: Length: 446 pages: Subjects World prices and interaction terms vary over time. By 1885, what were only two African countries to remain independent? book contains a detailed account of all major battles fought by the German colonial forces between 1889 and 1910. We start by utilizing an alternative way to measure the presence of a station. Southeast Asian Studies 39 (4):513–36. Prior to German unification in 1871, most of the focus of German foreign policy was on issues internal to the state and its European neighbors. 1985. 20 Boone 2003; Herbst 2000; Young 1994. The Autocratic Legacy of Early Statehood. Loading... Unsubscribe from gmascheer? As Trotha argues with respect to German colonialism in Togo, ‘The state begins with the station.’74 Authority was gradually expanded from the stations, where all activities related to state functions were performed.75. Mirroring arguments on the role of outside threats, military competition and state capacity at the national level, we provide evidence for the argument that actual and expected violence may also shape geographical patterns of state building at the sub-national level.104, To be sure, colonial state building differs from other forms of state building in, among other things, its scope, the actors involved and its lack of legitimacy. Scott, James C. 2009. 22 Levi 1989. violence. This suggests a model of developing colonial state institutions in concentric circles around administrative capitals. The Impact of European Settlement Within French West Africa: Did Pre-Colonial Prosperous Areas Fall Behind? The British held large sections of West Africa, the Nile Valley, and much of East and southern Africa. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Using information from an early German statistical report, we also constructed a variable for the degree of ethnic group integration into the colonial state. 13 Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001; Engerman and Sokoloff 2002; Huillery 2011; Lange, Mahoney. 55 Banerjee and Iyer 2005; Le Meur 2006; Steinmetz 2008; Wilson 2011. threatened by resistance in any form, violence must be considered the most important type of new information in this context.56 Thus we hypothesize that state expansion was driven by responses to acts of violent resistance, rather than by specific structural features such as the internal organization of ethnic groups. These were frequently disputes about access to land and water, but also the legal discrimination against the native population by the white immigrants. 70 Koponen 1995, 241. 2004. The Human Capital Legacy in Postcolonial Democratic Development. While political centralization has an independent and negative effect on the creation of stations and their respective status, we still find consistent evidence for our two main independent variables. Table 2 displays the marginal effect of a 1-standard-deviation increase in all of the statistically significant variables in the model. The German Colonial empire got its start around 1884, and in those years they acquired several territories in Africa: German East Africa (including present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania); German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia), German Cameroon (including parts of present-day Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Chad and Nigeria); and Togoland (present-day Togo and parts of Ghana). | ISBN: 9780905838953 | Kostenloser Versand … In addition, we illustrate how the strategic concerns of the colonial government superseded costs concerns, for example, related to health risks, when it came to the placement of colonial stations. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Despite German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck’s opposition to overseas colonies, pressure from the German people to establish colonies for international prestige led to a significant empire during the Scramble for Africa. Studies in Comparative International Development 43 (3–4):219–30. Becker, Felicitas. Moreover, existing accounts have not discussed how informational constraints shape the strategic decision making of state actors in early phases of state building. To measure precipitation and average temperature, we use geo-referenced information from the WorldClim project (1950–2000), validated by historical sources (see the Appendix for details). Pesek, Michael. Four agricultural products played essential roles in German East Africa: coffee, cotton, sisal and rubber. Secondly, the desire to establish comprehensive territorial control motivated colonial administrators to consistently commit scarce state resources to remote and inaccessible areas of the colony, even though there was no prior indication of economic viability. France controlled much of North Africa, West Africa, and French Equatorial Africa (unified in 1910). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Geschichte der kaiserlichen Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika [History of the Colonial Protection Force in German East-Africa]. Stations were responsible for securing trade along the caravan routes, taxing the local population, administering forced labor and ensuring jurisdiction.76 Consequently, the spatio- temporal advancement of state expansion can be traced through the establishment of German stations.77 Hence, our first indicator measures the presence of a German station. Fukuyama, Francis. 104 Thies 2007; Tilly 1990. When using the distance to the nearest station as a dependent variable, we generate problems of strong spatial autocorrelation, since neighboring cells have very similar values on the dependent variable. 51 Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001; Boone 2003; Gerring et al. 84 Marner 1940. States have to incur the associated costs before they can capitalize on access to the resources of the newly conquered territory. The horizontal and vertical outer boundaries of the grid net have been defined randomly. Berlin: Ch. The Maintenance of Law and Order in British Colonial Africa. 91 We are setting all other variables to their respective means and medians. 2008. This is likely the case because the majority of variation in the index comes from cross-sectional differences. At Apia and the settlements Finschhafen, Simpsonhafen and the islands Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg, trading companies newly fortified with credit began expansion into coastal landholding. 2003. In the beginning of the 19th century, the Nama from South Africa, who already possessed some firearms, entered the land and were followed by white merchants and German missionaries. some military units held out longer: German South-West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916, and German East Africa only in 1918 by war’s end. Steinmetz, George. The first step is to identify a useful unit of analysis. First we create a simple yearly count variable for all battles that took place within the grid cell. While their objectives certainly go far beyond pure effective occupation, states need to focus on pacification first in order to prevent any relapse into disorder. colony. Munich: Weltforum Verlag. Economía 3 (1):41–88. 101 When we construct a panel of station-years and regress total tax revenues on violent resistance and our, standard control variables, we find that revenues drop in response to violence, but recover in later years. 49, 711–737 Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2017, The Territorial Expansion of the Colonial State: Evidence from German East Africa 1890–1909, JAN PIERSKALLA, ALEXANDER DE JUAN AND MAX MONTGOMERY*. While unique in some ways, analyzing German colonial rule in German East Africa can shed light on the rudimentary processes of state penetration in the early phases of state building. 37 Henley 2004; Trotha 1994. Journal of Economic Growth 12 (3):185–234. Occupying Syria Under the French Mandate: Insurgency, Space and State Formation, 1st Edition. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer. Neither the soil suitability variables nor the interaction term with world market prices attains statistical significance at conventional levels (the constituent term for world market prices is absorbed by the year fixed effects). 82 Koponen 1995. First, they constitute ‘initial’ phases of state building. Positive and Negative Impacts of German imperialism include: Positives:-Germanys trade industry began to grow as Germany expanded into Africa.-Germany was able to show other nations, such as France and Great Britain, that they had a strong military (at one point Germany stopped an African uprising by killing 60,000 people of an 80,000 population). Figure 1 depicts the location of German stations at the outset of colonial rule (1890) and at the end of our study period (1909). 33 While Thies (2007) does consider the importance of internal rivals for increasing state capacity, his analysis. Cecil Rhodes and the Cape-Cairo railway project. Later, the Nama and Herero entered a period of cultural exchange. By definition, the territorial control value is positive, and higher values indicate a potential increase in geographic coverage. We find that cotton production was clearly influenced by the presence of the German colonial state. support@studenthomeworkhelp.com Native Administration in Tanganyika and Nigeria. In a period of four years, 1904-1907, approximately 65,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama people perished. Tilly, conceptualizes the elimination of internal rivals as a key dynamic of state formation in Western Europe.17 This process of ‘state making’ led to the monopolization of power and created incentives for extraction.18 Migdal theorized state penetration as a conflict over social order and control. While we, present qualitative evidence to establish the causal mechanism more firmly below, we also explore an instrumental variables strategy to assuage fears of reverse causality (see Appendix Section 12 for details). 1995. 29 In 1885, colonial powers agreed at the Berlin Conference that they had ‘the obligation to ensure the. Details on historical sources for our variables are provided in Appendix Section 1, while summary statistics for all variables are presented in Section 2. 69 Becker 2004; Koponen 1995. We believe that all three perspectives highlight essential elements of complex long-term, state-building processes. To control for these logistical arguments, we include four time-invariant additional indicators in our main models: the length of roads and caravan routes per grid cell,90 as well as each grid cell’s distance to the nearest coast and nearest international border. First, we find consistent empirical evidence that violent challenges to colonial rule were a, prime determinant of the geographic expansion of state presence. Journal of Peace Research 9 (4):303–14. 1981. We have geo-referenced both maps and extracted the respective information. Print; Events. We replicate our main analysis for two alternative, randomly drawn grid-cell configurations as well as grid cells of slightly smaller (40 × 40 km) and slightly larger (60 ×60 km) size, without affecting our main findings. A third prominent explanation of state building stresses the role of war and violence. You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp! As such, Germany’s colonial endeavor in Africa, like other imperial powers at the time, was motivated less by resource extraction and more by a desire for prestige and competition with other European powers, which led to a very specific scope of objectives in the colony, contrasting with other phases of European colonialism. 1999. 58 Bückendorf 1997; Iliffe 1979. This implies that colonial state penetration is a function of resistance by the local population. Our empirical analysis focuses on two main explanatory variables: the territorial control value and resistance by the local population. 2008. 2005. Euskirchen: Universität der Bundeswehr München. Consequently, territorial control and order not only constituted priorities in themselves but were also crucial prerequisites for all other administrative and economic objectives of the colonial state and its metropolis. Berkeley: University of California Press. We would like to emphasize that colonial data should be used with caution. American Journal of Political Science 56 (2): 465–83. The territory became a German colony under the name of German South-West Africa. Rhodes founded the De Beers Mining Company, owned the British South Africa Company and gave his name to what became the historical region termed Rhodesia. Interestingly, the results for variables measuring the potential for economic extraction have no, 88 Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001. Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of nationhood. Effectively controlling large regions requires substantial financial and human resources that are rarely available in the initial phases of state building, which forces states to make strategic decisions about the spatial allocation of their resources. * Authors contributed equally. Classic state-building theories, especially in the colonial context, emphasize the fundamental role of structural factors – such as extractive activities, prior indigenous political centralization and the local disease environment – in shaping observable patterns of state expansion and consolidation. Moreover, the Hansen J statistic indicates that we fail to reject the null hypothesis of exogeneity. Yet this occurred right before the. Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects.

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